Hydrogen: The Burning Question (2023)

Mike Menzies asks what effect does injected hydrogen have on furnace, flame and exhaust in natural gas combustion plant?

THE world is rising to the exciting challenge of controlling CO2 emissions. Replacing natural gas with hydrogen is progressing up the list of potential remedies for the domestic market.

The general public is increasingly aware of global warming, and remedies such as Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. But ‘Replace’ is being investigated with respect to the carbon in the National Grid gas supply. We had hydrogen in towns gas throughout the middle of the last century and the researchers are investigating replacing methane in the gas main with hydrogen, at least in part to begin with.

Hydrogen is well known in many large industries, but for production of other materials. The hydrogen is usually made from natural gas, by steam methane reforming (SMR) without capturing the CO, and in sufficient quantity for the process. Choosing one of the iron and nickel family of catalysts, together with heat, steam, methane and oxygen, a large proportion of hydrogen is made, together with CO2. Depending on production stability, the quantity of hydrogen may be in excess, in which case the plant looks to use the excess hydrogen elsewhere – usually by injecting it into the plant gas main. Hence this gas main composition changes from that of natural gas to include hydrogen, typically up to 30%.

What effect does the hydrogen composition have on the furnace, the flame, and the exhaust?

The good

The benefits of hydrogen include:

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  • it, like methane is not poisonous, (just asphyxiating and explosive);
  • it has quite a high spontaneous ignition temperature (SIT) of 650oC – it needs a spark to ignite;
  • it has very wide flammability limits (3–70% H2 in air mixture) – it is easier to maintain a flame;
  • it burns to water vapour, thus eliminating CO2 emissions; and
  • it burns with a much higher flame speed (300 cm/s) than methane (30 cm/s), thus stabilising the flame.

The bad

Disadvantages include:

  • the higher flame speed increases the flame temperature locally, which can generate high levels of NOx;
  • the wide flammability limits require consideration in the safety assessments;
  • hydrogen has a different Wobbe Index from methane, to be taken into account in design (the Wobbe Index is a measure of the ability of a gas to deliver heat through a jet hole at constant conditions. It is calculated by the calorific value divided by the square root of the specific gravity of the gas); and
  • hydrogen has a different combustion air requirement index, CARI (a measurement of the combustion air required for a gas), compared with methane.

Flames and NOx

This plant fuel gas is what the furnaces receive. So how does the hydrogen content affect the NOx emissions? The higher flame speed increases the flame temperature locally, which generates NOx. So the burner manufacturer has to design a burner to give a flame which will minimise the production of NOx. There are many ways of accommodating high hydrogen fuel gases whilst still keeping the flame cool enough to minimise NOx formation. The key is to slow down the rate at which the fuel and air mix. This gives rise to a diffusion flame. A diffusion flame is where the incoming gas is surrounded by the products of combustion where the gas and oxygen in the air have reacted. This sleeve or cloud of exhaust products slows the combustion because the gas has now got to diffuse out through the cloud, and the oxygen has to diffuse inward. Hence the name “diffusion flame”. This flame is usually slow enough such that the heat of combustion is radiated to the surroundings without reaching the critical NOx temperature of 1,350oC. The diffusion flame may well obtain sufficient temperature to crack the fuel before it is combusted. There will then be free carbon which will burn with a yellow flame. This does not look as well controlled as a sharp blue flame, so low-NOx burners, involving diffusion flames rather than deflagration, are only slowly being recognised by the operators. Many operators will remember bright yellow flames from heavy fuel oil or vacuum residue oil which had less acceptable exhaust composition.

Hydrogen: The Burning Question (1) Hydrogen: The Burning Question (2)

There are many ways of accommodating high hydrogen fuel gases whilst still keeping the flame cool enough to minimise NOx formation. The key is to slow down the rate at which the fuel and air mix

The converse of a diffusion flame is a deflagration flame. In this case the gas and air are premixed and admitted into the combustion chamber, where they find a source of ignition. The flame propagates at the flame speed so the gases have to be injected at a velocity greater than the flame speed, otherwise the flame could “flash back” and burn in the burner mixing chamber. Premix burners therefore have a limited turn-down range and are designed for a particular flame speed. Adding hydrogen increases that flame speed and makes existing premix burners unsuitable for conversion to high hydrogen gases. The combustion rate can be reduced by diluting combustion air with exhaust gases as a method of slowing down the flame to reduce the temperature, but many installations have natural draft or induced draft premix burners where chamber negative pressure and gas aspirators entrain fresh ambient air into the premixer and thence to the burner quarl (prefired refractory burner block). So, we cannot reduce the oxygen partial pressure in these burners without modification to the air and associated control systems.

Hydrogen: The Burning Question (3)

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Figure 1: Diffusion flame (left) and deflagration flame (right)

The flame which one hopes never to see in a furnace is a detonation flame. The heat of combustion from a flame at the centre of a pre-mixed cloud of gas and air produces a pressure wave which is sufficient to provide the source of ignition to the adjacent mixture (like a diesel engine) and so the combustion front proceeds at the speed of sound, or greater.

There is a further flame to consider - flameless combustion. This is used in high temperature furnaces where the burner design is not important. The gas and air are injected into the chamber separately and are heated by the radiation within the chamber to well above the SIT before mixing occurs. So wherever the gas and oxygen meet they will react and give off more heat. The exhaust gases will, of course, take heat out of the high temperature furnace and so heat recovery devices such as regenerators or recuperators become a necessity. The radiation from the flame appears less because the flame is dissipated throughout the combustion chamber where the light intensity is high – white hot. In these cases the furnace can be designed for the gases to wipe the crown of the furnace transferring heat by convection to refractory. The refractory has an emissivity near 1, so radiation to the product is achieved. Radiated heat energy incident on a surface is either absorbed or reflected. The amount that is absorbed is also re-radiated or emitted. The type and surface of all materials has a different proportion of reflection and absorption (emission). The two proportions always add up to 1 and the particular material can be simply described by the emissivity value which will be between 0 (shiny gold surface) and 1 (matt black surface). Regenerators or recuperators are used to recover heat from high temperature furnace exhaust gases.

Hydrogen: The Burning Question (4)

Figure 2: Small wall hugging burners use convection to transfer heat of the flame to the refractory using the Coanda effect, then radiation to the process tubes

Natural draft premix burners

Returning to the natural draft premix burners, like the high temperature furnaces referred to above, they may well include design which promotes flame impingement onto the refractory to promote even radiative heat transfer from the heater wall to the product tubes. These small, wall-hugging burners use convection to transfer heat of the flame to the refractory using the Coanda effect or by nozzle design. (The Coanda effect results in a flow of gases, where these gases follow a curved surface because that curved surface has no gaseous molecules adhering to collide with – and therefore modify the direction of – the flow stream.)

Burner manufacturers have designs for both premix and nozzle mix flat flame burners, and for both induced draft and forced draft.

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They may be suitable both for high hydrogen as well as low NOx. Adapting these burners for low NOx will often involve separating the flame into a rich and lean section where both parts of the flame have a lower flame temperature because of being away from the stoichiometric region. The rich zone may be as simple as a neat gas poker firing onto the edge of the lean gas flame. High hydrogen is ideal for these burners because of the wide flammable range of hydrogen in the lean zone and the high flame speed for stability of the rich jet.

The processes they are used on tend only to require a very limited turn-down range which allows a significant proportion of hydrogen in the fuel without incurring flashback on a premix burner. There are usually many burners, often several hundred, arranged in rows. During heatup after a shutdown, rather than trying to modulate the burners, gentle heat input is often achieved by lighting rows or individual burners on/off. Nozzle mix flat flame burners should not have any significant problem as the hydrogen content of the gas is increased, save for the choice of nozzle material. But the problem for premix flat flame burners is more significant with high hydrogen. A flashback might extinguish but will probably reoccur and if the flame stabilises at the premixer (a burnback) then the burner is likely to be destroyed in a short time, almost certainly before it can be observed by an operator. Fitting flame detection on all, say 500 burners, is likely to be blocked by financial considerations.

Process stability would suggest that modulation, even if it is only 2:1, would be beneficial. However, the percentage of hydrogen would be the limit to the range of modulation. Modulation of 2, 3, or 4:1 may be suitable with a methane gas but not for pure hydrogen. Phasing over from pure methane to high hydrogen could be achieved with new jets/nozzles, but this procedure would be suited to a specific change of fuel and not just to gradual changes in fuel composition.

Unlike the flat flame wall burners above, many boiler/heater/furnace/kiln low-NOx burner designs separate the combustion air into two parts – the primary air and the secondary air. The gas will be delivered in the centre with the primary air, and pilot flame or igniter (and often flame detection equipment). The secondary air is delivered outside the diffusion flame package, with low turbulence to minimise mixing. Power station burners tend also to be suited to low NOx and high hydrogen. In these power station burners there can be several other fuels. It’s not unknown for a boiler burner to have five different fuels, though one or two of these fuels may merely be a method of disposing waste or vent gas from another process. Coke oven and blast furnace gases are common, but they do have a significant influence on the original design of the burner. It is likely that one of the fuels may be “plant gas” shared by energy consumers throughout the plant.

These boiler burners are generally well suited to utilising high hydrogen gases in a nozzle mix arrangement. Furthermore, the control system fitted on a boiler is often sufficiently well instrumented that air:fuel ratios can be continuously controlled allowing gas composition changes without notice. To achieve low NOx, one of the favourite procedures is to reduce the combustion air to all burners (making the flames sub-stoichiometric) and removing all the fuel lance internals from the last row of burners, thus supplying the “secondary” air at the end of the combustion chamber. This design will need a further chamber for the final combustion (probably flameless combustion) before the exhaust gases pass into the convection section.

Calculation or measurement of the Wobbe index can be undertaken and is both a simple and effective way of trouble-free inclusion of higher levels of hydrogen gases. The Wobbe Index is a measurement of the ability of a gas to deliver heat through a certain size jet, but this may require a different amount of air to achieve it. So even if you can get the same heat out of a burner, you may need to put in more combustion air. This calculation is very similar. The combustion air requirement index, CARI, is the amount of air required to combust the gas so that the air stays in ratio with the gas. It is common for such a gas to be continuously monitored in a Wobbe index analyser.

There are many other matters to consider. For instance, when we put high levels of hydrogen in the fuel, the exhaust could turn white with condensing steam droplets as it cools. So, the public may see a change in the stack plume.

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Hydrogen: The Burning Question (5)

Figure 3: Roof-mounted burners with different fuels


This review has looked at the development of burner design to take account of emission regulations, specifically NOx. In the main, this requires separating the combustion air into primary and secondary streams so as to achieve a diffusion flame. This diffusion flame is larger, slower, and cooler than its predecessor, the deflagration flame. So, because changing to low NOx will probably require new burners, it would make sound economic sense to choose a burner design which is also suitable for high hydrogen.

Your plant is likely to be legally obliged to control the NOx emissions. But in your neighbourhood and your nation you should be morally obliged to prepare for hydrogen

Your plant is likely to be legally obliged to control the NOx emissions. But in your neighbourhood and your nation you should be morally obliged to prepare for hydrogen. It’s not difficult. Burners can be designed for any gas composition with hydrogen. It is just a little bit more difficult if the composition changes excessively.

But undoubtedly, hydrogen is our friend in the furnace. We just have to control it.

This is the 11th article in a series discussing the challenges and opportunities of the hydrogen economy, developed in partnership with IChemE’s Clean Energy Special Interest Group. To read more from the series online, visit theseries hub.

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Correction: Figure 3 has been changed as it originally made an incorrect reference to "secondary air plus 100% gas".


What is the burning test for hydrogen? ›

Hydrogen (H2) When a burning splint is introduced to a sample of pure hydrogen gas, it will burn with a popping sound. Oxygen (O2) When a smoldering splint is introduced to a sample of pure oxygen gas, the splint will reignite.

What is the problem with burning hydrogen? ›

The burning of hydrogen can lead to the thermal formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx – the sum of NO + NO2) via a mechanism that also applies to the combustion of fossil fuels.

Does hydrogen support the burning process? ›

Hydrogen is a very combustible element in the presence of oxygen, but it does not support combustion as oxygen does. Which means hydrogen burns itself but does not allow substances to burn in it. Pure hydrogen burns with oxygen with a non-luminous blue flame with a unique pop sound.

What will be formed by burning of hydrogen? ›

When hydrogen burns in oxygen, water is formed.

What color is hydrogen when it burns? ›

Hydrogen burns with a pale blue flame that is nearly invisible in daylight. The flame may appear yellow if there are impurities in the air like dust or sodium. A pure hydrogen flame will not produce smoke.

What burns hotter hydrogen or natural gas? ›

Bottom Line: Hydrogen burns hotter than natural gas, so be mindful of material selection, heat dissipation and NOx emissions.

Why don't we burn hydrogen for fuel? ›

First, hydrogen is not as energy-dense as other fuels, meaning that you need a whole lot of it to do a little bit of work. Couple that with the inherent inefficiency of a piston engine (at best, you're only turning about 30 percent of the fuel's energy into forward motion), and you've got a recipe for disappointment.

Does burning hydrogen contribute to global warming? ›

Unlike most fuels, hydrogen does not produce the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) when burned: instead, it yields water. This means that burning hydrogen fuel does not contribute to climate change. The versatility of hydrogen fuel creates many opportunities to replace fossil fuels in different parts of our economy.

Does burning hydrogen produce co2? ›

While carbon dioxide can be a byproduct of hydrogen production, hydrogen itself emits no carbon dioxide when burned or used in a fuel cell.

Does hydrogen need oxygen to burn? ›

Hydrogen as a fuel

While hydrogen is an energy currency, rather than an energy source, it is still considered to be a fuel. It requires "burning" in the presence of molecular oxygen, and this process creates heat which can be used for work. The only by-product of this reaction is water and some nitrogen oxides.

Does burning hydrogen produce pollutants? ›

Public Health and Environment

Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles—such as nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter—are a major source of this pollution. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric vehicles emit none of these harmful substances—only water (H2O) and warm air.

What is the efficiency of hydrogen burning? ›

While a battery-powered truck delivers an average tank-to-wheel efficiency of 75-85%, hydrogen fuel cell trucks achieve just 50%, and hydrogen combustion engines are as low as 40-45% — similar to diesel, according to analysis from consultancy McKinsey.

How long does hydrogen burning last? ›

Each stage of burning lasts a shorter time than the previous one. For example, in a 25 solar mass star, hydrogen burning would take about 7 × 106 years, helium burning 7 × 105 years, carbon burning 600 years, neon burning 1 year, oxygen burning 6 months and silicon burning one day.

Which burns faster hydrogen or oxygen? ›

As we know water molecules are made up of hydrogen and oxygen.In oxygen material Burns 6 times faster than air and hydrogen is a flammable element then why water does not Burns?

Is hydrogen flammable or explosive? ›

Hydrogen used in the fuel cells is a very flammable gas and can cause fires and explosions if it is not handled properly. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. Natural gas and propane are also odorless, but a sulfur-containing (Mercaptan) odorant is added to these gases so that a leak can be detected.

Does burning hydrogen smell? ›

Hydrogen is invisible and does not smell.

Why is hydrogen so flammable? ›

Hydrogen gas (H2) is composed of two hydrogen atoms stuck together, each containing just one proton and one electron. This simple chemical structure is what makes hydrogen gas flammable and relatively easy to ignite. This is also why hydrogen gas is non-toxic, odorless, tasteless, and light.

Does hydrogen burn slowly or explode? ›

Hydrogen gas is very flammable and yields explosive mixtures with air and oxygen. The explosion of the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is quite loud.

Is hydrogen the cleanest burning fuel? ›

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind.

Can hydrogen burn in pure oxygen? ›

Burning hydrogen in pure oxygen just produces H2O. However, hydrogen would normally be burnt in air and some of the ferociously active oxygen atoms combine with nitrogen in the air to form NOx.

Why can't cars run on hydrogen? ›

The reason why hydrogen is inefficient is because the energy must move from wire to gas to wire in order to power a car. This is sometimes called the energy vector transition. Let's take 100 watts of electricity produced by a renewable source such as a wind turbine.

Can a normal car engine run on hydrogen? ›

Both hydrogen internal combustion engines and hydrogen fuel cells can power vehicles using hydrogen, a zero-carbon fuel. Hydrogen engines burn hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, in just the same way gasoline is used in an engine.

Why are we not making hydrogen cars? ›

The vast majority of car companies have turned away from hydrogen because of the high density of energy consumed in its production, as well as poor funding and backing from governments, which is stopping the hydrogen revolution from expanding ever more.

Why is hydrogen bad for the environment? ›

Hydrogen increases ozone levels here, a greenhouse gas and key component of smog. Hydrogen interferes with the breakdown of heat-trapping methane in the atmosphere . It has other warming effects, too. Here, hydrogen increases high-altitude water vapor.

Does hydrogen destroy ozone? ›

In the upper atmosphere, hydrogen may moisten and cool the stratosphere, slowing down the recovery of the ozone layer. In the lower atmosphere, hydrogen may hasten the build-up of the greenhouse gases: methane and ozone and hence contribute to climate change.

Is hydrogen a byproduct of burning fossil fuels? ›

Hydrogen can be produced from diverse, domestic resources. Currently, most hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels, specifically natural gas.

Does burning hydrogen produce water vapor? ›

Direct hydrogen combustion

Burning hydrogen produces water vapor and nitrogen oxides as the only emissions “We're currently conducting an elaborate study to determine what climate impact this will have and how it will compare with the impact from conventional engines and the fuel cell,” Wirth explains.

How environmentally friendly is hydrogen? ›

Hydrogen is a naturally occurring gas that is also the most abundant element in the universe. It has enormous potential as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels because it only emits water when it is burned.

How much energy does burning hydrogen produce? ›

In layman's terms, burning hydrogen results in water: H2 + 1 2 O2 −→ H2O + 286, 000 joules. This combustion reaction also releases 286,000 joules of energy per mole of hydrogen gas burned.

Can hydrogen burn without spark? ›

it has quite a high spontaneous ignition temperature (SIT) of 650oC – it needs a spark to ignite; it has very wide flammability limits (3–70% H2 in air mixture) – it is easier to maintain a flame; it burns to water vapour, thus eliminating CO2 emissions; and.

Why does hydrogen burn orange? ›

It has been proved that the orange flame colour is due to the emission of soot generated in the combustion process [5].

Does hydrogen produce pollutants? ›

Hydrogen produces pollution

When hydrogen is combusted, it does not produce carbon emissions, but it does produce NOx emissions up to six times worse than those released by methane combustion.

Does hydrogen burn invisible? ›

Hydrogen is a clean-burning gas. Therefore, its flame is nearly invisible during daylight hours.

Is hydrogen worse than CO2? ›

Hydrogen reacts with the same tropospheric oxidants that "clean up" methane emissions. Methane is an incredibly potent greenhouse gas, causing some 80 times more warming than an equivalent weight of CO2 over the first 20 years.

What are the pros and cons of burning hydrogen? ›

Hydrogen fuel cells

Pros: No vehicle emissions other than water vapor. Fuel economy equivalent to about twice that of gasoline vehicles. Hydrogen is abundant, and can be made from renewable energy. Cons: This space-age technology is expensive.

What is the main advantage of burning hydrogen? ›

Highly Efficient when Compared to Other Energy Sources

This fuel efficiency allows for the production of more energy per pound of fuel. For example, a conventional combustion based power plant generates electricity at 33-35% efficiency compared to up to 65% for hydrogen fuel cells.

At what temp does hydrogen burn? ›

Flame Temperatures
FuelFlame Temperature
hydrogen2,660 °C (oxygen), 2,045 °C (air)
MAPP2,980 °C (oxygen)
methane2,810 °C (oxygen), 1,957 °C (air)
natural gas2,770 °C (oxygen)
12 more rows
Dec 7, 2019

How much oxygen is required to burn hydrogen? ›

An explosion cannot occur in a tank or any contained location that contains only hydrogen. An oxidizer, such as oxygen must be present in a concentration of at least 10% pure oxygen or 41% air.

How long until Earth runs out of hydrogen? ›

The Sun has enough hydrogen fuel to last it another 5 billion years. However, life on Earth might become extinct as early as 1 billion years from now.

Does hydrogen explode in air? ›

Even small amounts of liquid hydrogen can be explosive when combined with air, and only a small amount of energy is required to ignite it. Both its explosiveness and the extremely low temperatures involved make handling it safely a challenge.

How clean does hydrogen burn? ›

Because hydrogen typically does not exist freely in nature and is produced from other sources of energy, it is known as an energy carrier. It is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, hydrogen produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product.

What was the test for hydrogen? ›

Test for Hydrogen: Place a lighted splint in a test tube containing the gas. If the gas is hydrogen, there will be a squeaky pop. This is a mini-explosion because the hydrogen burns very quickly in oxygen forming water (as steam) and releasing heat energy.

Does hydrogen need a spark to ignite? ›

Hydrogen Combustion

The auto-ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite without the presence of a flame or spark. The auto-ignition temperatures of hydrogen and natural gas are very similar.

Is hydrogen A flammable gas? ›

Hydrogen has a very broad flammability range—a 4 percent to 74 percent concentration in air and 4 percent to 94 percent in oxygen; therefore, keeping air or oxygen from mixing with hydrogen inside confined spaces is very important.

Who did the hydrogen experiment? ›

Henry Cavendish
Sir Henry Cavendish HonFRS
Known forDiscovery of hydrogen Measuring the Earth's density (Cavendish experiment)
AwardsCopley medal
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry, physics
7 more rows

Can hydrogen burn without carbon? ›

Hydrogen fuel refers to hydrogen which is burned as fuel with oxygen. It can be a zero-carbon fuel, provided that it is created in a process that does not involve carbon.

Does burning hydrogen cause air pollution? ›

Public Health and Environment

Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles—such as nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter—are a major source of this pollution. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric vehicles emit none of these harmful substances—only water (H2O) and warm air.

Why are automobiles not powered by burning hydrogen? ›

First, hydrogen is not as energy-dense as other fuels, meaning that you need a whole lot of it to do a little bit of work. Couple that with the inherent inefficiency of a piston engine (at best, you're only turning about 30 percent of the fuel's energy into forward motion), and you've got a recipe for disappointment.

How toxic is hydrogen gas? ›

For example, hydrogen is non-toxic. In addition, because hydrogen is much lighter than air, it dissipates rapidly when it is released, allowing for relatively rapid dispersal of the fuel in case of a leak. Some of hydrogen's properties require additional engineering controls to enable its safe use.

Is hydrogen toxic to breathe? ›

CONCLUSIONS: Inhalation of 2.4% hydrogen gas does not appear to cause clinically significant adverse effects in healthy adults.


1. Combustion of Hydrogen
2. Hydrogen: A Seemingly Simple Fuel, Speaker: Heinz Pitsch
(Combustion Webinar)
3. The truth about hydrogen
(DW Planet A)
4. CEE Entrance Prep - Day 15 | Language of chemistry | QAD | Mohan Bikram Neupane | Hamro Academy
(Hamro Academy CEE )
5. Paul Martin: "Hydrogen - The Decarbonization Problem" | The Great Simplification #63
(Nate Hagens)
6. Burning Hydrogen - Prof Simon
(Professor Simon Holland)


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